Eosinophilic pneumonia is a disease in which an eosinophil, a type of white blood cell, accumulates in the lungs. These cells cause disruption of the normal air spaces where oxygen is extracted from the atmosphere. Several different kinds of eosinophilic pneumonia exist and can occur in any age group. The most common symptoms include cough, fever, difficulty breathing, and sweating at night. Eosinophilic pneumonia Specialty: Respirology. Eosinophilic pneumonia can be caused by several infectious etiologies of parasitic origin. The noninfectious etiologies can be categorized into allergic, exposure-related, and idiopathic etiologies (Table 2). The clinical history and careful evaluation of patients allow clinicians to first narrow the potential causes to these broad categories and then to a specific diagnosis.
Known causes of eosinophilic lung disease include allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and related disorders and exposure to parasitic infections, drugs, or certain toxic substances. Systemic disorders that cause eosinophilic pneumonia include Churg-Strauss syndrome and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Although both AEP and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) are characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the pulmonary parenchyma, these disorders are clinically distinct. (See "Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia".) The clinical features and management of idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia will be reviewed here.
Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia. Most patients are middle age female nonsmokers and patients do not usually develop the severe sudden illness seen in acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Similar to Churg-Strauss Syndrome, a majority have asthma, with many having a history of allergies; the airflow obstruction tends to worsen with disease activity. Churg-Strauss syndrome is an autoimmune condition associated with the inflammation of the blood vessels that may lead to eosinophilia. Diagnosis of acute or chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is made after studying the intensity of symptoms and their progression along with the duration for which the symptoms are exhibited by the patient.Author: Smita Pandit.
Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is an idiopathic disorder characterized by an abnormal and marked accumulation of eosinophils in the interstitium and alveolar spaces of the lung. The clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia will be reviewed here. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), formerly called Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a form of vasculitis—a family of rare diseases characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels, which can restrict blood flow and damage vital organs and tissues.